The weary traveler should never go without:
water, a good book, a plan
I am in the finishing motions of my Bsc. of science in Bioinformatics, using this blog to share my own experiences with life science and the courses I take.
I post random texts about travel and entertainment
How To - Glyconeogenesis
Since in 2015 the Biochem exam is around the corner in January, we are getting back with the metabolism pathways in our body.
Maybe this is also a good way of keeping the fat level over the holidays in check :p
But this post is not about fats - it's Gluyconeogenesis!!
After investing 4 ATP and 2 GTP you will get glucose, this process takes part inside the Mitochondrium and the Cytoplasm
The metabolic pathway which results in the generation of glucose from non-carbohydrate substrates.
These substrates which are pyruvate, lactate, glycerol and glucogenic AAs.
This pathway is one of the core ones, which monitor our blood glucose levels, to avoid hypoglycemia.
What you have to keep in mind is, that you can't just reverse glycolysis - there were some irreversible steps made in that pathway!!!
In this quick post I try to explain the basics of the Cock-Younger-Kasami (CYK) Algorithm to you. This shouldn't take more than 15min for you to understand, since I am terrible at logic and math related studies - if I could do it so can you :D
The CYK is a theoretical construct that can be used to find context free languages by feeding grammar and its production rules into a table and see wether a word from the language you wish to identify, matches up with these rules. To make this process run smooth, the production rules must be formatted in such way that it matches Chomsky Normal Form (CNF) standards;
on the left hand side of a production rule stands a non-terminal symbol (a variable) on the right hand side of a production rule there can be maximal 2 non-terminals or 1 terminal symbol (a symbol that represents a constant value) but never non-terminals and terminals mixed For my course I worked through an example step by step, we started out with 3 production rules:
The citric acid cycle is one of the central logistical hub in our metabolism. It provides oxidative breakdown for organic substances, energy by releasing CO2 and H2O from Acetyl-CoA and so on.
There are 10 basic steps to the cycle and its goal is to catalyze the condensation of Oxalacetate to Citrate. I will list the intermediates of this reaction and their respective enzymes, as well as their components: Citrate + Aconitase -> cis-Aconitate (H20) cis-Aconitate + Aconitase -> Isocitrate(H20) Isocitrate + Isocitrate-dehydrogenase -> Oxalsuccinate (NAD+, NADH) Oxalsuccinate + Isocitrate-dehydrogenase -> Alpha-ketoglutaric-acid (CO2) Alpha-ketoglutaric-acid + alpha-ketoglutarate-dehydrogenase-complex -> Succinyl-CoA (CoA, NAD+, CO2, NADH/H+) Succinyl-CoA + Succinyl-CoA-Synthase -> Succinate (GDP, ADP, GTP, ATP) Succinate + Succinate-dehydrogenase -> Fumarate (FAD, FADH2) Fumarate + Fumarase -> Malate (H2O) Malate + Malate-dehydrogenase -> Oxalacetate (NAD+, NADH) Oxa…
The determinant of a matrix is very useful and commonly asked for in exams. With it, you can determine if a matrix is invertible (thus find the inverse for sure, without wasting tons of precious time in an exam) and it's a sure way to get points even if you are pretty hopeless and just want to pass
There are three basic cases for matrices, dimensions 2x2, 3x3 and dimensions 3<. Results for the three exercises will be posted at the end.
Tipp: a matrix can only be inverted if the determinant does not equal 0 !
In the case of matrix A (2x2) the main- minus minor-diagonal formula applies; with upper left times lower right, minus upper right times lower left.
For example B (3x3) it becomes more complicated. We can apply the rule of Sarrus (Wikipedia). For that, we replicate the first two columns to the right side. Now we create the main and minor diagonals, as seen in the picture below:
After this, we subtract the sum of the minors from the sum of the main diagonals and receive the determ…