How To - Glyconeogenesis

Since in 2015 the Biochem exam is around the corner in January, we are getting back with the metabolism pathways in our body.
Maybe this is also a good way of keeping the fat level over the holidays in check :p
But this post is not about fats - it's Gluyconeogenesis!!

After investing 4 ATP and 2 GTP you will get glucose, this process takes part inside the Mitochondrium and the Cytoplasm

The metabolic pathway which results in the generation of glucose from non-carbohydrate substrates.
These substrates which are pyruvate, lactate, glycerol and glucogenic AAs.
This pathway is one of the core ones, which monitor our blood glucose levels, to avoid hypoglycemia.

What you have to keep in mind is, that you can't just reverse glycolysis - there were some irreversible steps made in that pathway!!!

First Step: Carbolization and de-Carbolization
Enzymes: Pyruvat Carboxylase, PEP Carboxy kinase
Components: Pyruvat, Oxalacetat, Phosphoenol-pyruvat (PEP)

This step is to work around one of the irreversibles form Glycolysis!

Second Step: Basically the reversible steps of Glycolysis REVERSED
Enyzmes: Enolase, Phosphoglycerate mutase, Phosphoglycerate kinase, Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, Triose phosphate isomerase, Aldolase
Components: Phosphoenolpyruvate, 2-Phosphoglycerate, 3-Phosphoglycerate, 1,3-Bisphosphoglycerate, Dihydroxyacetone phosphate or Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate, Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate

Here are several steps which also come in Glycolysis - they can just be undone backwards!

Third Step: Hydrolysis of Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate
Enyzmes: Fructose bisphosphatase
Components: Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate, Fructose-6-phosphate

Fourth Step: Hydrolysis of Glucose-6-phosphate to Glucose
Enyzmes: Glucose-6-phosphatase
Components: Glucose-6-phosphate, Glucose

That's it suckers! :D


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